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Pashto – پښتو‎

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General overview

“Pashto is an Indo-Iranian language of the East Iranian branch, spoken primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan.”

“Pashto is considered to be the second-most important Iranian language, after Persian, given its widespread use in Afghanistan and Pakistan, its official status in Afghanistan, and its long literary tradition dating back to or before the 16th century (MacKenzie 1992; Skjærvø 1989).”

– David 2014:7

Short descriptions

  • Prods Oktor Skjærvø – “Pashto”. Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (1989), ed. R. Schmitt, pp. 384-410

  • Barbara Robson and Habibullah Tegey – “Pashto”. The Iranian Languages (2009), ed. Windfuhr, pp. 721–772

  • D. N. MacKenzie – “Pashto”. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Second Edition (2003), ed. W. J. Frawley, Volume 3, pp. 251–257


  • Anne Boyle David – Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects (2014)     ➤ Publisher's page

  • Habibullah Tegey and Barbara Robson –  A Reference Grammar of Pashto. Washington 1996.     ➤ Download pdf

  • Ernest Trumpp – Grammar of the Pḁṣ̌tō Or Language of the Afghāns. Tübingen 1873.     ➤ Download pdf


  • H. G. Raverty – A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans (1860)     ➤ Download (with bookmarks)

  • Raverty online (Digital Dictionaries of South Asia)   ➤ Link (searchable in English and Pashto)

  • Wilma L. Heston – A digital Pashto-English dictionary with audio     ➤ Link

  • Georg Morgenstierne – A New Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto. Wiesbaden: Reichert 2003.


  • James Darmesteter – Chants populaires des afghans (1888–1890)     ➤ Download (slightly edited by PHI from this source)


  • Georg Morgenstierne – Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan. Oslo 1926.

Internet resources

Relevant PHI Projects

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